Brief 2 / Part 1 ‘Group Component – Making a Resource Tool’:
Group: Rosa, Sahana, Caleb, Rohan & Pip
Communication (outside Massey) via: Messenger / Shared Google Doc / Meet up for debrief & free cup of tea on Friday after class. (Other days proved tricksy for us all to be present but may change in future weeks)
Planning & notes taken from class:
Refer to ‘Tikana Underlying Principles and Values’ reading as a guide to successful teamwork. Also draw on information gained through learning in weeks 1 – 6.
Considerations: Our responsibilities as artists & designers / how we respond to our clients ? / discussions around codes of ethics & practice / different cultural contexts / gender / mobility divisions – what responsibilities do we have ? / concept practice and approach / who is our client ? what age group ?
What skill sets and attributes does each of us bring to the group ? What was our topic for brief 1 & Major ?
Caleb – (Kaitiakitanga) Spatial / digital skills / Ps / good ideas & sketches Research – slave trade in the Pacific
Rohan – (Kaitiakitanga) Fine Arts / painting development / interested in developing ideas in relation to becoming colonised: expressive / abstract / surrealism Research – art history
Sahana – (Whakapapa) Fine Arts / family history (Maori) / bring ideas out / development of ideas & input Research – gender sexuality Faafine
Rosa – (Mana) Photography & meaning behind photography / Installation / Sharing of ideas / Research – NZ Pacific & Chinese culture
Pip (Kaitiakitanga) Textiles / mixed media / texture / research / comms Research – navigation between Pacific Islands
Stephanie – (Mana) Fine Arts / Painting & Abstract / interested in how Colonisation is being shown in Wellington Research – Language Barriers (placenames)
What are our expectations of others ?
Topic chosen by group: PACIFIC HISTORIES
Resource tool chosen by group: Collaborative Artwork. 5 panels depicting a timeline of topic. One panel each to be completed by team members in their chosen medium, drawing on creative skills & strengths. This concept is to be built on as a team, modified / adapted / developed throughout the coming weeks. We need to keep it malleable.
Styles suggested: organic / natural / colonial ..
Caleb’s thumbnail sketches to show the concept of a timeline (love the bat – can we include it somewhere ?)
Black Sheep Histories (characters of NZ history) – podcast ref shared on Messenger
IND Study, task 3
Pacific history – The Polynesian islands, Māori ancestors originated from Polynesia, Māori and Pacific have similar whakapapa mythology, Tonga and Samoa (The Ancient Lapita Culture),
Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: Taonga Works and Intellectual Property
Sahana’s notes (29-34):
Tamatea and his brother Uhenga-Ariki migrated on canoes to Hawke’s Bay. Uhenga had conflict with the people and got killed. Tamatea climbed top of hill and mourned by playing nose flute. Tune was so haunting that it came to be known as “Te Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaurehaeturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu”
Also known as longest name in the world.
Tā moko- the mark on Uetonga who went with her father, Mataora to beg forgiveness to the father of Niwareka.
Concerned about misuse of tā moko, only for expressing their whakapapa/ tribal identity
Te Rauparaha (political leader) and his people being chased by Ngāti Te Aho. Wharerangi ( chief of Lake Rotoaira) hid Te Rau in kumara pit & his wife straddle him. Te Rau bursting from pit is now performed as the famous haka (Ka Mate).
Misuse of this in NZ and around the world, exploiting an ancestor’s composition.
Taonga work- story, name, visual art, performance.
-physical creations of matauranga, result of creativity
Kaitiaki of taonga works means to safeguard. Eg. Ngā Kere Hapū is kaitiaki of Tamatea’s grief.
Taonga works depend on access to traditional resources in order to produce.
Intellectual Property Rights – law rights in respect of specific creations of the human minds. Eg. work of art
Law imposes limitations of these rights and creations to be protected. Designed to reward creativity and share to wider community.
Western legal system “property” – to own/control use of property by excluding others from using it.
Different to Kaitiakitanga – kaitiaki have rights & obligations in respect of taonga works/matauranga.
Both sides are recognised in declaration of Human Rights “ Everyone has a right to protect” but also “everyone has right to participate & share in scientific advancement”
Should the system recognise kaitiakitanga/ taonga works/ mātauranga?
Copyright/ trademark not equipped to cater for protection of kaitiaki relations/ taonga works. Non-kaitiaki using in culturally offensive way to benefit.
To what extent do kaitiaki be involved in this process?
The Crown acknowledge taonga works associated with Māori in best interest. Suggests that special protection would decrease innovation/lack of access to knowledge.
Kaitiakitanga and NZ law have differences but share common interest of good will. Different ways of thinking about the same issue. How two cultures decide what’s best for their created works.
Kaitiakitanga- obligations, kinship, relations
NZ law- rights of owners
Stephanie’s notes from 29-35 (p.s sorry I suck at notes)
-Maori stories being misused and failing to absorb the grief that it portrays
-The need for protection for language
-Responsibility of Ta Moko and what it means to be marked with one
-The use of their marks to sign
-Something considered wrong, was adapted in order to save ones life
-The haka was created
-Commercial exploitation of maori ancestors composition in the media and misrepresenting the understanding
-Taonga, creation and pre-existing body of knowledge, values and insights. Modern or distant past.
-Taonga work is Kaitiaki
-Obligations to safeguard the Taonga itself
-In summary, responsibility to uphold values and the rules. But the rules are there to be challenged if need be. And protected, and respected as the obligations of the people.
-IP rights: creations protected for certain periods of time. The ideas behind them rather than the product itself
-Property in IP rights takes more of a western front on ownership of something
-Kaitiakitanga, being quite different and in relation to kaitiaki/ tikanga maori responsibility and obligations
-IP rights never absolute
-Universal decleration of human rights, everyone has the right to protection of moral and material interests etc
-Rights to experiencing and contributing to culture and community
-Should the IP rights be specified to that culture?
-International responsibility to confide in the respected culture to confirm eligibility seems extremely important in regard to this subject IMO
-Adaptability, who can confirm what is adaptable? Mana?
Rosa’s notes from page 44
(1) What are taonga works?
The Waitangi Tribunal described taonga works as the tangible and intangible expressions of Māori artistic and cultural traditions, founded in and reflecting the body of knowledge and understanding known as mātauranga Māori.
Examples of taonga works include haka, karakia, waiata, weavings, carvings, tā moko and designs.
Taonga works have koorero, they have mauri to protect. One example is the marae on the fourth floor of Te Papa Museum. Taonga works sit at the interface between the traditional world from they came and contemporary. I can also be a positive force in the life and wellbeing of the community who are its kaitiaki.
(2) Taonga derived works
The Tribunal also used the term ‘taonga-derived works’ to describe works that derive inspiration from mātauranga Māori or a taonga work, but without necessarily relating to or invoking ancestral connections (whakapapa), or containing or reflecting traditional narratives or stories in any direct way.
Those are elements generalized or adapted. Non-maori influences may also be present in the work. They are generic or derivative that they have no whakapapa no koorero, and no kaitiaki.
This works evoke modern personalities rather than ancestors, tell contemporary stories rather than ancient ones.
There are two categories of non- Treaty interest:
-IP rights authors with copyrights
Just what is derogatory or offensive use is probably determined thorough adjudication of actual examples by authorities invested with appropriate jurisdiction.
The Treaty, taonga works and intellectual property regime.
This part said that Taonga words- derivate works Maatauranga Maaori are entitled to protection from offensive public use.
NZ Intelectual property regime and the international context.
They recommend first:
-Introduce a regime to protect matauranga Maori and taonga works.
-To advocate for the broad uptake of minimum standards of protection in the international community.
Concepts in this part of my reading:
Kaitiaki is a New Zealand Māori term used for the concept of guardianship, for the sky, the sea, and the land. A kaitiaki is a guardian, and the process and practices of protecting and looking after the environment are referred to as kaitiakitanga.
Kaitiakitanga means guardianship and protection. It is a way of managing the environment, based on the Māori world view.
Māori Women: Caught in the Contradictions of Colonisations Reality
Pages 1-3 (Rosa & Sahana):
This article discuss the position of women in Māori society & English law.
Māori world view. Men & women were essential part as a collective whole, respected and valued.
Maui used his kuia (grandmother) jawbone to make fire & his other kuia to Hine- immortality story.
No hierarchy of sexes in Te Reo
Pronouns are gender neutral ( tana/tona). Women decribed as= whare tangata (house of humanity), whenua= land & after birth, hapu= pregnant, large kinship.
Common saying “He wahine, he whenua, e ngaro ai te tangata”(by women & land, men are lost)
Papatuanuku (mother earth) = ancestress of all Māori. Had key role in instructing son (Tanemahuta) to find human element, how to create Hine-ahu-one & human kind.
Rosa’s notes from page 1 to 3
In the introductions of the reading the leadership was the domain of man and for consequence man has power over woman. But according to evidence in the history women had significance roles as man.The roles of man and woman only can be understood only in the context of Maori society.
For Maori men and women are part of whakapapa that linked Maori from the beginning of the creation, and woman is the key role linked with the past and the future.Woman is represented by the language and verses expressed by proverbs. For example, “He whahine, he whenua, e ngaroai te tangata”,which means “By woman and land men are lost”, this refers to the essential role of woman and land fulfil.Maori were very supportive with woman and protected her, they were “extremely liberated”, Maori woman were not regarded as chattels or possessions, and they kept their own name upon marriage, their children were free to identify with both parents or kinship group of the family. Woman keep their whanua, divorce carried no stigma, and issues as to custody
and ongoing support of children were sorted out within the whanua context. Maori Woman was part of the community.
The Status of woman under English law.
The position of women in English law was from their status from Roman law. The Roman law determinate the head of the family was in control of the household, women and children were chattels to be used and abused by paterfamilias as he chose. Woman changed his status of being property of their father to being property of the husband.
Colonizer found a land of noble savage narratives of woman. But they did not like this, they did not make dialog with women, they request meetings with only man. Colonizer worked to women were treated as possessions, housewife, and “easy woman partners”, a woman who had chiefly roles were considered the exception to the rule.
Page 4 – 6 ½ (Caleb & Pip)
Under post colonisation law, adoption was introduced to provide a ‘destitute’ child with security by a couple who were not their birth parents, safe in the knowledge the child would not be reclaimed. However, what was deemed a ‘real’ family situation required a man and woman to be married. A woman’s sexual behaviour and consequent child-bearing capabilities could be referenced and legitimised only in the context of ‘marriage’. Therefore she was owned by her husband. A child born out of wedlock was illegitimate, requiring protection and ownership by lawfully married parents. Following an agreement in ‘ownership rights’ adoptive parents would then become owners of the child over the child’s (birth) parents.
Maori did not have a comparative system to adoption. Although it was commonplace for a child to be raised by people who were not their birth parents, the child remained within the whanau, with knowledge rights of their whakapapa. This benefited the whanau in many ways; adding strength through interrelations and bonds within the whanau structure, providing comfort to childless couples, recuperation for those feeling overwhelmed and an understanding of the flexibility and impermanence of the arrangement. Children were not property but instead nurtured by many homes within one whanau. These children were referred to as Whangai.
(definition: Whāngai is a customary Māori practice where a child is raised by someone other than their birth parents – usually a relative. Common types of whāngai include a grandchild being raised by grandparents and taught tribal traditions and knowledge, or an orphan or illegitimate child being taken in by a family. ) [www.teara.govt.nz]
The law recognised these arrangements as ‘valid adoptions’ however in order to inherit / succeed to land, from 1901 Maori were required to confirm whangai by order of the Native Land Court. It was an acknowledgement only, not the creation of a relationship. In 1909 a legal relationship between children and adoptive parents had to be granted by the newly enacted Native Land Act. This bill – (which remained until 1955) – allegedly to protect the adoption of pakeha children by Maori whanau. There had been an increase in, quote ‘indifferent European parents’ and ‘heartless European mothers’ who took advantage of the maternal kindnesses of Maori women. The text identifies the superior colonial view over Maori existence, referring to their existence as ‘improper for European children’. Some children were forcibly relocated to ‘industrial schools’.
The situation optimised the disparity between post-colonial adoption laws and Maori whanau practices. The law did not recognise this as a recognised ‘family model’ and therefore it could not be a legal adoption. From 1915 ‘closed adoptions’ meant access to records and information was restricted. In 1955 all became ‘closed adoptions’. If the child and one applicant were Maori (including half caste) this could still be processed through the Maori Land Court Process. Many Maori refused to participate. By continuing with traditional (informal) arrangements, Child Welfare Officers reserved the right to remove the child.
1962 brought controversy in the Adoption Amendment Act, enforcing a ‘one law for all’ approach. This excluded Maori Aunts, Uncles and Grandparents who were deemed too old or closely related to adopt. The court instead favoured young pakeha couples who were prepared to adopt Maori babies. Maori MPs rejected this very strongly. As a result, informal / unofficial but also legal adoptions continued with the guidance of Maori welfare officers.
However, many single mothers were convinced by Child Welfare Officers, through shame of illegitimacy, poverty and selfishness reluctantly gave their babies away for legal adoption. The babies’ whanau were often declined the right to adopt the child. Many babies were matched to adoptive parents according to their skin tone (marginality) and were often passed through a succession of foster homes or ended up in institutions. The law preferred this existence to that of a child raised within its own whanau and the associated stigma of illegitimacy. This process failed in many areas, especially the disconnect between mother, child and whanau. Adoption into an unknown family where (non-birth mother and the child were the property of the non-birth father) – the child became lost in a broken system.
The consequences have been detrimental to Maori society, a once highly respectful and nurturing whanau / whakapapa based system, now influenced heavily by negative and dominating white male supremacy over women and children. It seems irrevocable. Generations of guidance through whakapapa, ancestral lineage, knowledge and cultural identity has been lost. Even though the 1985 Adult Information Act allows some limited contact between children and their birth mothers (restrictions were not apparent in the text), some iwi connections are forever severed, serving to reinforce a lack of acceptance of the value and relevance of Maori cultural beliefs from a western viewpoint.
Current policy requires only the father (if he is a guardian) to give consent for the child’s adoption if the birth parents are unmarried. No other whanau member has a rightful claim to the child or its welfare. Sadly western intervention has brought about the demise of mana wahine. Only when Maori autonomy in philosophies and law are reinstated, the journey to healing many cultural wrongs can begin within the realms of whanaungatanga.
The position of Maori women today
What does modern day colonisation mean for Maori women in New Zealand today ? In recent years there has been an increased acknowledgement by the Crown of the vast number of wrongdoings in respect of; dishonouring the Treaty of Waitangi principles, land theft, the importance of Maori cultural beliefs, values and political or economic involvement. Many protests to highlight these issues have been lead by powerful Maori women.
Raising awareness of Maori grievances in 1972 and 1984 lead to political electoral pledges to address Treaty issues and the re-establishment of the Waitangi Tribunal in 1975. They became common references in forums such as politics, education, legalities and in public. However, the Treaty issues were poorly represented and interpreted, became less popular and eventually were sidelined in favour of western-influenced policies and procedures.
Maori women have been overlooked in areas of Health and Disability (of which Maori women are deemed to be in poor health). Crown-based negotiations favour male negotiations, implying there is still an inferior attitude in the value of women particularly Maori. This lack of support gives rise to women’s vulnerability, not only in health but employment, social status, isolation from whanau, racial slur and domestic violence.
The text refers to two successful films; The Piano and Once Were Warriors. Both harrowingly portray pakeha and Maori women as subjects of possession, abuse and domestic violence at the hands of men. Due to the colonial view of the perfect ‘family nucleus’ and despite the films being set over 150 years apart, the former is responsible for the latter.
It seems that rather than join forces with pakeha feminists in the fight against gender inequality, Maori women who are opposed to dominant white patriarchal and colonial systems also oppose to ‘white’ women who are deemed to to ignore it. It would appear that Maori women would rather stand alone without allies than have the Maori culture, knowledge, understandings and experiences misunderstood or misrepresented.
Historically, Maori women have been very capable leaders whether at national, iwi or hapu level. Therefore why are leadership roles in Maori society held predominantly by men, leaving the perception of women being of lesser value and the men in danger of becoming self-perpetuating stereotypes ? If a woman is successful she is deemed exceptional.
Ahunga Tikanga & Sexual Diversity
Pages 21-29 (Stephanie)
-Reconstructing understandings of our past
-Lack of knowledge from history/ written history
-Use of references to oral maori traditions conveying behaviours of the past
-Sexuality specifically and introduction to western culture and religion seeping into Maori behaviours
-Positives of Tikanga being that it is adaptable, which is crucial in righting wrongs into the future
-Sexuality an Maori experiences being inconsistent in terms of tikanga and or following a more western approach
-Needing the definition of sexuality and what that means for the individual; takatapui (to some people) meaning and sexual relationship, rather than being defined a homo/hetero-sexual
-The pressures of being a double minority, therefore more exclusion and lack of identity
-Lack of evidence in general in terms of how sexuality was dealt with amongst families and the “laws: in Maori culture
-Most if not all evidence that is attempting to support the opinions around sexuality are strongly influenced by that of western culture rather than amongst Maori
-Pressures to follow the ‘Norm’ of society/ politics
-Strong references to identity and where we stand; Atea
Pages 28-31 (Sahana)
-Whakapapa is Maori’s first source of identity. Because of colonisation, many do not care to know theirs.
-Colonisers suppressed tradition. Stats show Maori with problem rather than Colonsation. Now Maori reconnecting with Kaupapa through programmes.
– Coloniser culture= to treat everyone all white therefore everyone is hetero. A pressure to conform and behave to sociallly acceptable idea of homosex. 1974 homo sex considered mental illness/ illegal between men until 1985. Heterosex is privileged, treated as normal.
-compared to ethinicity, sexuality is less obvious. Hiding/Denying is common and cause high suicide rates. Organisations eg. Gay Rights Association are a response to this, to support each other.
-For non-hetero Maori they feel excluded by both Maori and queer communities. They are unsure of their place. Queer culture just as inclined to racism.
-If Maori condone intolerant hetero, we leave a group of Maori out. Queer Maori therefore have to choose between sexuality and Maori identity. Is this consistent with tikanga?
-Tikanga is flexible, it is happening in the now. Tikanga was colonised of dominant western culture.
-atuatanga= create deeper understanding & connection.
-Whakapapa central to tikanga & matauranga. Individuals are part of an ongoing whakapapa always has a place in the world, cannot be taken away.
-Whakapapa fundamental to tikanga Maori therefore an argument to compulsory hetero but sexuality doesn’t determine if person have children or not.
– Dont have to literally give birth to continue whanau identity. Pushing people away does not strengthen whanau.
-Whakapapa mean we’re all connected. Belonging to whanau not sexuality. It is an insult to whakapapa to exclude queer whanaunga
-Whanaungatanga= maintaining relationships. Responsible of problems of all group members. Connecting people. Gender diversity= greater skillbase
Kuia (elderly woman) more supportive of their sexuality & some kaumatua strongly police sexual norms= reflects colonising culture
-Mana= a measure of social understanding. Actions should enhance mana of self & group. Honesty, integrity, bravery etc. gain mana. Mistreating, abusing, diminishes own mana. There’s consequences for failing to respect mana.
-Colonisation has contribution to limited definition of mana. Masculity- being a warrior race, as a main source of mana, inconsistent with gay men. Hypermasculinity stereotype holding Maori back & literally killing them.
Pages 32 – 35 (Pip)
Definition: 1. (noun) chieftainship, right to exercise authority, chiefly autonomy, chiefly authority, ownership, leadership of a social group, domain of the rangatira, noble birth, attributes of a chief.
Definition: 2. (noun) kingdom, realm, sovereignty, principality, self-determination, self-management – connotations extending the original meaning of the word resulting from Bible and Treaty of Waitangi translations. [maoridictionary.co.nz]
Rangatiratanga is the acknowledgement, support and positive cohesion of the group’s individual skills and their collective worth and value to benefit good leadership. Sexuality-based exclusion is not only detrimental to the individual but the group, by taking away the valuable skills of that individual. In the belief of celebrating and accepting diversity, encouragement of this is directed in the case of predominant hetro-normative views.
Definition: 1. (noun) hospitality, kindness, generosity, support – the process of showing respect, generosity and care for others. [maoridictionary.co.nz]
In showing love, respect and kindness to someone, regardless of their background or social standing, mana and rangatira is increased, benefitting all, reiterating the benefit of celebrating and accepting diversity.
By demonstrating atuatanga, we accept and celebrate who we are as individuals, dispelling negative and intolerant attitudes.
Hetero-intolerance attempts to inhibit sexual expression. Those to choose not to conform are alienated. This negativity is in breach of tikanga.
Tolerance to homosexuality has the view of normality in the Heterosexual world, thus favouring or prefering institutions that support this, creating pressure to conformity. Considering control and power, to what length does ‘tolerance’ go ? Can sexual diversity be manipulated into what is deemed tolerable in a predominantly Heterosexual ‘mainstream’ society ? By trying to marginalise and restrict contribution is also in breach of tikanga.
Acceptance acknowledges and celebrates sexual diversity provided expression is respectful and consensual. There are no implications or judgement. It is in accordance with kaupapa.
Celebration. Western views of sexual diversity have caused negative influences on some Maori attitudes. From colonial criminalisation, questions of mental well-being (pathologising) and demonism, it has affected attitudes, language and behaviours that have become acceptable. Liberation of sexual identity can be achieved through self reflection and education of personal views, assumptions and attitudes to dissipate heterosexism and homophobia.
Colonising culture has influenced many gender-based assumptions, fears and shame. If everyone is respected, positive messages and responses to give people the courage to be true to and express themselves is in accordance with kaupapa.
In order for tikanga to be successful in areas relevant to sexual diversity there is a need for flexibility. The cultural and historical views and actions of tupuna (particularly female), is one approach to a resolution. Kaupapa can assist the development of tikanga in the hope that it is all inclusive. Across Pakeha and Maori cultures, the existence of sexual diversity is tolerated but not necessarily accepted. Within Maori whanau it is possible that where strong mana and the security of a firm identity exists within that community, that it is accepted. However, the comparisons of ‘silent’ acceptance and inclusion to prominent ‘loud’ messages of hate and fear need to be addressed. Whanau have a responsibility to imbue this message into children particularly in a hetero-normative environment so that they may be educated to the acceptance and celebration of sexual diversity but also disparities between a silent, loving and inclusive response and loud negative and hateful public messages.
Black birding / the Pacifc Slave Trade
(June, 1863. The Grecian, a 27m whaling ship painted a martial black and white, anchors off the western coast of ‘Ata, a small, rocky island in the far south of the Tonga archipelago. The captain, Tasmanian whaler Thomas McGrath, yells an invitation to the assembled islanders to come on board to trade.
Nothing unusual here. The ‘Atan population of about 300 are used to trading with passing vessels – pigs, chickens, sugar cane, yams and potatoes for rum, tobacco, pipes, knives, hooks and hoes. Almost 150 men, women and children paddle out to the ship. Some swim. On board they are invited to share a feast (or, some say, view the wares) below deck. But as soon as they descend the stairs, the trap doors slam shut and the ship sails away with about half the population of ‘Ata locked in its hold.)
Blackbirding: New Zealand’s shameful role in the Pacific Islands slave trade43
By Sally Blundell Jan 7, 2017
John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland (Image no. APO-025-0001-0013)
National Library of Australia, nla.obj-136808374
These are some concepts I Drew up.
History of China in New Zealand
Pacific Histories • Asian Aotearoa Histories
The history of Chinese in New Zealand started with Wong Ahpoo Hock Ting. He was the first Chinese immigrant in 1842. At nine years old he left left China when to work on English Vessels as a ship’s boy and a steward. He was known as Appo Hocton, arrived in Nelson in the immigrant ship Thomas Harrison on 25 October 1842. Appo was housekeeper to Dr Thomas Renwick. In 1849 Appo started a new job as carter, after three years he applied for naturalisation to acquire and lease real property. Appo is the first naturalised Chinese New Zealander on January 3, 1853. (Stade)
Appo was a good businessman and his business prospered very well. Appo moved to Dovedale with his family and bought 485 acres of rural land. He was one of the first in the are to grow crops. He passed away in 1916. (Malone)
The responsible to bring Chinese was Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He planned to provide value labour as servants, shepherds, mechanics and manual workers. But his idea was taken as a conspiration to bring slaves. The reason for Chinese left China consisted in the discovery of gold in California, Canada and Australasia. But in New Zealand was Otago what attract Chinese. They were recruited by the Dunedin Chamber of commerce. They were thought as hardworking who preferred return to China after making their fortunes. (Ip)
The work on the goldfields became harder to find, in Dunedin started to impose a Poll Tax of £10 to all ships arriving in New Zealand were restricted to one Chinese per 200 tons of cargo, and this poll was raising to £100. By the 19th and 20th centuries organizations such as the Anti-Chinise Association, the Anti-Chinese League, the Anti-Asiatic League and the White New Zealand League surged to oppose Chinese immigration. Chinese were required to sit an English reading test, and who left the country temporarily needed re-entry permits. these associations achieved permanent residency was denied from 1926. (Anti-Chinese)
The next list of ways in which Chinese were discriminated against included: (Poll)
· From 1898 until 1936 Chinese were denied the old-age pension.
· From 1907 all arrivals were required to sit an English reading test.
· From 1908 Chinese who wished to leave the country temporarily needed re-entry permits, which were thumb-printed.
· From 1908 to 1952 naturalisation was denied to Chinese.
· From 1920 all Chinese arrivals required an entry permit.
The Chinese have immersed themselves into New Zealand through their culture and traditions. According to the census 2018 there are 132,906 Chinese in New Zealand.(Table 3)
One of their most popular celebrations is the Chinese New Year, which celebrates the new year on the traditional Chinese Calendar.
Market gardening history
A news article regarding the history of Chinese market gardeners.
They worked at goldmines till the gold ran out so they turned to farming. This was during poll tax too, so they were isolated didn’t have their families.
Japan invaded China in the 1930s so wives & children were then allowed into NZ for two years.
Artist Yuk King Tan
Yuk is an Australian-born Chinese-New Zealand artist. Her work is held in the permanent collections of Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki and the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
Her recent works
The New Temple. Found objects and red wax.
Eternity Screen, 2019, made with cable tie, plastic handcuffs, zip ties.
Stade, Karen, “Jumped ship to become first Chinese Immigrant to New Zealand.”, Appo Hocton – Jumped ship to become first Chinese Immigrant to New Zealand, theprow.org.nz, 2008, URL: http://www.theprow.org.nz/people/appo-hocton/ (accessed 28 September 2019)
Malone, C. B. ‘Hocton, Appo’, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, URL: https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1h31/hocton-appo (accessed 28 September 2019)
Ip, Manying, ‘Chinese – The first immigrants’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/chinese/page-2 (accessed 28 September 2019)
‘Anti-Chinese hysteria in Dunedin’, URL: https://nzhistory.govt.nz/anti-chinese-hysteria-dunedin, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 26-Feb-2019
‘Poll tax on Chinese immigrants abolished’, URL: https://nzhistory.govt.nz/poll-tax-on-chinese-immigrants-abolished, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 26-Feb-2019
Table 3, “2018-Census-totals-by-topic”,URL: https://www.stats.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/2018-Census-totals-by-topic/Download-data/2018-census-totals-by-topic-national-highlights.xlsx, updated September2019.
Pacific Histories – Te Reo Maori and Pacific Languages
Notes: Pacific Histories
Specific Topic: Language
Polynesia, “many islands” (Greek)
“The ocean is a place of connection”
Q: What is “The Pacific”?
- Oceania/ Australian continent
- Made up of 14 countries, but 1,000’s of islands make up the whole continent
- Different islands: Continental, Low and High Lands (Geographical)
Q: What languages are spoken in Oceania?
- ⅕ of the worlds recorded languages spoken are in Oceania
- 3 subregions of ‘Culture areas’; Malenesia, Micronesia and Polynesia
- The Polynesian Triangle
- Polynesian language was adapted and refined from each other
- Different groups of language and their origins
Click to access b20278883_Marck_J.pdf
Language and art
Pacific Art Styles:
- Wood, fibre, feathers, stone
Q: How is language used in Aotearoa?
- Rapid decline in using Maori in the
- Movement to take back Te Rep Maori, especially in schools (mandatory)
- Maori language week/ Pacific languages weeks
- Starting to use Maori more frequently when speaking about cities e.g Poneke
Q: Is Poneke even right? Considering it’s derived from Port Nic (*port Nicholson) maybe it should be know as Te Whanganui a Tara?
- Tinakori – No dinner, it’s making fun of Maori and their situation, why is it still named that? It has another name; Te Ahumairangi Hill
Brief History on the revival of Maori language
- Over 200 years of Te Reno Maori
- Predominantly spoken until the 19th century, when more colonisers settled
- Concern for the dying language in 1980’s where initiatives began
- Evolved from eastern Polynesia in NZ
- Had no written language at the time, just symbols and carvings, knots and weaving that was widely understood]
- Attempt to write down Maori language in 1814, for the use of communication between Maori and the colonisers
- Hongi Hicks and relative Waikato systematise the language in 1820’s
- “Māori all over the country were teaching each other to read and write, using materials such as charcoal and leaves, carved wood and the cured skins of introduced animals when no paper was available.”
- Pakeha were the majority by the 1860’s
- English was the predominantly spoken language
- Speaking Maori was a sense of pride and identity for their culture
- Te Reo Maori officially discouraged from speaking
- Suppressed in schools
- “In the mid-1980s Sir James Henare recalled being sent into the bush to cut a piece of pirita (supplejack vine) with which he was struck for speaking te reo in the school grounds. One teacher told him that ‘if you want to earn your bread and butter you must speak English.”
- Maori family’s encouraged speaking english because it was needed in the workplace or on the sports field
- “English became the major source of borrowed words, which were altered by Māori usage to fit euphonically and grammatically.”
- Both pakeha and Maori were adapting and borrowing words
- Establishment of Maori language week in 1975, a petition by “Auckland-based Ngā Tamatoa (The Young Warriors), Victoria University’s Te Reo Māori Society, and Te Huinga Rangatahi (the New Zealand Māori Students’ Association)”
- The crowns responsibility as per the treaty of waitingi to have kept Maori language alive
- “Efforts to secure the survival of the Māori language stepped up a gear in 1985. In that year the Waitangi Tribunal heard the Te Reo Māori claim, which asserted that te reo was a taonga (treasure) that the Crown (government) was obliged to protect under the Treaty of Waitangi. The Waitangi Tribunal found in favour of the claimants and recommended a number of legislative and policy remedies. Māori was made an official language of New Zealand under the Maori Language Act 1987.”
Mr G Hoete Art
Pacific Histories – Navigation (Pip)
There are many resources and theories relating to the origins of Pacific migration and subsequent navigation and settlement of the South Pacific. Early humans who were reliant on foraging and hunting for food and warmth, began exploring the Earth by land – (approximately 60 000 to 70 000 years ago ). Due to climate change and in search of food, approximately 50 000 BCE (Before Common Era) they had journeyed along the coast from Africa to India, China & Taiwan, arriving in South East Asia (Sundaland) and Near Oceania (Sahul) which later became Australia. Sea levels were lower at this time allowing greater access by land until the Ice Age melt between 19 000 and 6 000 years ago. 
The ‘Austronesian Expansion’ began with migrations reaching the Celebes Sea, Borneo and Indonesia. Throughout this time, people were adapting to environmental changes, becoming more adept at self sufficiency and increasingly skilled in carving, agriculture and as descendants of the Lapita people, crafts such as elaborately patterned pottery and weaving, utilising natural materials. With the assistance of north-west and south-east trade winds, they learned how to travel between islands gaining excellent navigational techniques.  Over time sailing vessels (canoes), once simply crafted rafts, were now capable of travelling greater distances by their skilled navigators. By 1200 BCE and 500 CE, they had reached Melanesia, Micronesia and surrounding islands.
By approximately 1000 BCE Polynesia and other Pacific Islands had been colonised by the Austronesian people. Canoes were double-hulled with two stabilising crossbeams and a central platform. Sails were fashioned from specifically woven mats. At up to 50 – 60 feet (15 – 18m) in length they were capable of carrying people, food, animals, trading items and agricultural supplies enabling them to establish new settlements. Migrants were now journeying, not for the necessity of food and survival but for the purposes of exploration and settlement.
With finely attuned senses, the Polynesians were able to develop and refine their navigational skills through the study of many natural elements; ocean currents, swells and wave patterns, bird and animal migration habits, solar and lunar cycles, seasonal weather patterns and celestial mapping.  These seafaring skills and oral knowledge, passed down through generations was fundamental to their survival.
By approximately 1300 CE Polynesians began to negotiate the vast, treacherous and unforgiving South Pacific Ocean. They travelled to many islands, defined by three peripheral destinations known as The Polynesian Triangle; Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand. Requiring great skill, determination, bravery, courage, strength of spirit and adventure they spent many weeks at sea before reaching land. These early settlers were the ancestors of the Maori people. Early Māori later reached the Chatham Islands, several centuries before the first European reached New Zealand shores. 
The Polyesian Triangle. Image source: nzetc.victoria.ac.nz
Traditional kalia vessel design; one of the fastest vessels of Polynesian navigation. 
19th Century or early 20th Century navigation chart (khanacademy.org)
 Genographic Project / Map of Human Migration, National Geographic
 ‘Southern Dispersal’ google wikipedia.org
 Global sea-level rise at the end of the last Ice Age, 1 Dec 2010, www.noc.ac.uk
 Page 3. Into Remote Oceania: Lapita people, www.teara.govt.nz
 ‘Sailing Tonga’ www.livingoceansfoundation.org/sailing-tonga, September 30, 2013, written by Amy Heemsoth
 ‘Southern Dispersal’ google wikipedia.org
-Attempt to understand colonialism & “dream good dreams again” & return pride without healing country will remain permanent culturally, economically must train people of national developments in order to assume control of their countries again.
– “Cultures are like trees, forever growing new branches, roots”, was changing pre-papalagai (Europeans), no culture is perfect, can be “preserved”
-usage of culture determines authenticity in Hollywood films romance portrayal, imaginary life. Creating new oceania free from colonialism based on own pasts.
-Racism institutionalised in all cultures. Discrimination between ethnic groups, only valid culture worth having is one right now.
-knowledge of the past cultures a source of inspiration (excluding human sacrifices, cannibalism) was foreign then and now authentic eg Christianity.
-recognise & respect, differences but not use them to justify racist claims.
– going back to judging sub-cultures eg. to be samoan you must be “fully- blooded” believe in certain prescribed way. This destructs culture.
-also outsiders(colonisers) impose how to think & live own culture, how to “preserve” , be “domestic animals” . Some of their own people (Samoans) did this to their own people.
– all entitled to our truth, interpretations of our cultures. Polynesia lifestyle of priests vs commoners are different. Contact with papalagi & Asian increase number of sub-culture.
-we all conform to some extent within our own culture. All societies multicultural, Oceania more so than any region on earth.
– “whiteification” in colonial education systems still being continued in independent nations today.
-basic function of education to conform, respect, obedient fit children into roles society determined for them.
-All formal education systems (NZ/Bristish/Australian/American/French) have one common factor, civilising us , cutting us away from the roots of our cultures missionaries did same conversion.
-Not programmed to educate not in colonial interest to encourage industries in their own countries. More profitable if they remained exporters of raw materials. Not training to survive in own cultures.
-Education turned them to be ashamed of their cultures.
-Architecture similar to modern hospitals, concrete, steel.
-New tourist hotels” decolonised, sanitized” comfort. Countries imitating “papalagi culture” tragic effect of colonialism. Shown in architecture “dog- kennel shaped houses” as status symbol, govt quest for tourist hotels. Although bring money it turns us away from richness of culture.
– over 5 million possess a cultural diversity in Oceania more varied in the world. Undergoing diff stages of decolonisation, ranging political independence, self- governing colonies (aborigines) all must be taken into account.1200 indigeneous languages plus english, french, hindi, spanish.
-regardless of political barriers dividing countries. The cultural awakening first real sign of breaking away from colonial chill is the expression of art, literature.
– eg 1972 South Pacific Festival of Arts. Came together in fiji to perform, express. New forms emerging too.
-Oceania mainly written by outsiders, papalagi. Written as humorous romantics, racist, “noble savages” Oceania found this literature to be of papalagi fantasies, fictions, their dreams & nightmares. Shouldn’t reject this form but instead explore imagination with love honesty wisdom & compassion.
-South Pacific literature started to bloom. Eg MANA magazine & publications, a major catalyst for new growth of this literature.
– writing expresses revolt against hypocrites, exploits aspects of tradition, commercial, religious, colonialism etc
-Artistic renaissance is enriching our cultures, taking us through genuine decolonisation creating a new Oceania.
Hau’ofa, Epeli. “The Ocean in Us” The Contemporary Pacific, Vol. 10, No. 2. University of Hawai’i Press, 1998, 391-410. By Epeli Hau’ofa. (Second file)
Rosa’s notes page 392-397
- The document starting with the introduction of the new Oceania. This is the social network from Australia to New Zealand to the United States and Canada northeast.
- There is a common identity between those countries that include the protection of the ocean.
- It is clear his ancestors were sent to explore this land to make a new home.
- The author is not suggesting a cultural homogeneity in these countries, He said there is a diverse loyalty that make them strong countries. There is a metaphorical force .
- The regional identity starts from direct involvement with an institution caters for many of the tertiary educational needs of the most South Pacific islands region.
- His university has developed the sense of belonging to the Pacific Islands region , and of being Pacific Islanders.
- The promotion of Pacific Way in the university was made a unifying ideology. But was swept away by the rising tide of regional disunity of the 1980s.
- Anthropology was not included in the university’s curricula.
- In 1980s introduced neo-Marxism, and was quite hostile to any expression of local-ism and regionalism.
- Nationalism and regionalism were attempts to prevent the international unity of the working class.
- The early general name for the region was the South Seas, virtual synonymous with Paradise.
- Australasia is the combination of Australia and Asia, meaning south of Asia. Australia and the islands of southwest Pacific.South Pacific compromises from the Marianas, deep in the North Pacific to New Zealand in the south, the tern South Pacific replaced South Seas.
- Pacific Island Region is gradually replacing South Pacific, but exclude Australia and New Zealand.
- Asia-Pacific Region and Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation ASPEC are two definitions that marginalized the South Pacific region.
- Banana and Bikini are two islands that were persuaded to give up their island. Banana for the benefit of the British Empire, and Bikini for atomic test that would benefit all mankind.
This reading was about the naming of the pacific art center. How oceania and the sea have such an integral role in the identity and history of our people.
The first part of the reading speaks about cross cultural understandings within the university. They wanted to create a connected culture between everyone in the university rather than have everyone split into their own cultural groups.
Then we are introduced to the naming of the Pacific art and culture center, how the people involved came up with the name. How our historical connection to the sea and the sea connection to everywhere around us.
The reading goes in depth on how the pacific ocean connects to everywhere around the earth and to every island in Oceania. Artist Examples:
Atua Wāhine Krishna Aoraki He Iti Kahurangi
Mana wahine art
Here’s a little video about Tanu Gago where he speaks about his works and the male identity within a pacifica context, often about Masculinity and or sexuality. These photos often challenge standard cultural beliefs or attitudes towards masculinity and sexuality.
First Drafts :Caleb
FINAL BLURBS FOR POSTCARD
Chinese History – Rosa Parada
The first Chinese immigrant who arrived in New Zealand was Wong Ahpoo Hock Ting in 1842. He was known as Appo Hocton and arrived in Nelson in an immigrant ship named Thomas Harrison, on 25 October 1842. The Chinese who left China coincided with the discovery of gold in California, Canada and Australasia. Otago attracted Chinese where they were recruited by the Dunedin Chamber of commerce. Although they were thought of as hardworking, they preferred to return to China after making their fortunes.
By the 19th and 20th centuries organizations such as the Anti-Chinese Association, the Anti-Chinese League, the Anti-Asiatic League and the White New Zealand League surged to oppose Chinese immigration. Dunedin started to impose a Poll Tax of £10 to all ships arriving in New Zealand who were restricted to one Chinese per 200 tons of cargo, raising the poll to £100.
During the Poll Tax they worked at goldmines until the gold ran out, so they turned to farming making them isolated without their families. The Poll Tax was repealed in 1944. On 12 February 2002, Prime Minister at the time Helen Clark offered New Zealand’s Chinese community an official apology for the Poll Tax.
Pacific Navigation – Pip Rayner
50 000 ago early migrants reached South East Asia (Sundaland) and Near Oceania (Sahul) They adapted to environmental changes, self sufficiency and the development of art, hunting, fishing, agriculture and crafts using natural materials were evident. Over time sailing vessels (canoes) were carved with specially woven sails capable of travelling greater distances. Using trade winds they were able to travel between islands. By approx 1000 BCE, Polynesia and other Pacific Islands had been colonised.
With finely attuned senses, the Polynesians were able to develop and refine their knowledge of land and sea through the study of many natural elements; ocean currents, swell and wave patterns, bird and animal migration habits, solar and lunar cycles, seasonal weather and celestial mapping. These sea-faring skills and oral knowledge, passed down through generations ensured they became excellent navigators. At up to 50 – 60 feet in length they were capable of carrying people, food, animals, trading items and agricultural supplies enabling them to establish new settlements.
By approximately 1300 CE Polynesians began to negotiate the vast, treacherous and unforgiving South Pacific Ocean. They travelled to many islands, defined by three peripheral destinations known as The Polynesian Triangle; Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand.
LGBT+ Pacific – Sahana Rahman
Takatāpui, Fa’afafine, Fakaleiti, Fakafifine, Akava’ine, Mahu, Vakasalewalewa and Palopa are among the many gender diverse terms used in the Pacific region. Although the LGBT movement has made significant progress over the years, minority groups across the Pacifc still face social stigma, discrimination and violence. A huge factor of the ongoing social stigma throughout generations lies within colonisation. Before the arrival of settlers, exploration of sexuality and diversity was accepted among families and communities. But because the colonisers had missionaries and Christian values the Pacific people had to conform to the hetero-normative lifestyle. This forced many LGBT Pacific people into hiding. This judgement strongly remains in minority families today which make closeted individuals feel isolated from communities.
Pacific activists and artists have emerged to show their strength and support to the LGBT minority community and erase the stigma. Art has become a commonly known way to express sexual diversity. Fafswag is an Auckland based group of artists who celebrate LGBT Pacific culture through events, parties and performances. One of their most recent works is an interactive documentary which showcases artists performing vogue battles – (a highly stylised way of dancing that LGBT have claimed as part of queer culture). The raw, vulnerable and honest conversations in the documentary will help open up a new wave of acceptance and educate the Pacfic communities.
Pacific Art History – Rohan Trueman
Whero – Red
Pango – Black
Mā – White
These three colours are heavily used in modern Māori art and contemporary art, having significant iconographic meanings and representations in cosmology.
Whero/Red represents Papatūānuku the Mother Earth. Papatūānuku created all natural parts of life from the forests, the ocean, plants and everything else that naturally inhabit earth. This colour also represents mana, signifying status and power. It is often used to decorate important structures, such maraes and wakas. Sourced from red ochre (kokowai), it was mixed with shark oil.
Pango/Black represents Korekore – the realm of potential being and the Sky Father Ranginui above the Earth’s emergence after the darkness. The pigment was originally derived from soot when used to decorate wood.
Mā/White Represents Ao Marama the world of light, the physical world or the natural world. It is symbolic of balance and harmony, enlightenment and purity in the physical world. In pre-European New Zealand, natural wood was the representation of white until the introduction of paint.
Blackbirding Slave Trade – Caleb Schwabauer
Blackbirding was a term used for the mid-1800’s Pacific slave trade. By planned and deceptive means, ‘Blackbirders’ lured Pacific Islanders onto ships with promises of food. Once on board and below deck, they were trapped, kidnapped, later sold and forced into a life of slave labour. This horrific practice, which destroyed communities and cultures was prolific throughout the Pacific Islands most evident between 1847 and 1904.
This was a lesser known area of Pacific history, of which New Zealand had a small part. A notorious slave trader, Captain Thomas James McGrath attempted to enslave a group of islanders from Ata. However their conditions, once trapped below deck were such that they contracted smallpox. Unable to be sold they were abandoned on a remote island near Costa Rica, where most of them perished from starvation and disease.
After the UK had all but banned slavery, from the 1870s laws were enforced to restrict the practise of Blackbirding.
Pacific Language & Te Reo Maori – Stephanie Brandt-Partridge
Oceania is home to approximately a fifth of the world’s known languages. The continent is made up of 14 countries and 1000s of small islands across the Pacific Ocean. Based on the diversity of the different countries, the continent can be split into different subregions; Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.
New Zealand’s native language Te Reo Maori was adopted and refined by the first Polynesian navigators that settled in New Zealand. Similarly to how Polynesia developed their own native languages, they had borrowed words from their surrounding countries. Upon settling in New Zealand in the 18th century, Te Reo Maori began developing and was the predominantly spoken language in NZ until the 19th century.
After the colonisation of the European settlers, by the 1860s English was the predominantly spoken language of New Zealand. By the 19th century, there were major concerns for the dying out of Maori language. It was common to be punished for speaking Maori in public spaces and officially discouraged to speak Maori.
For Maori, much like other cultures, speaking Te Reo gives our people a sense of pride and identity. This mindset encouraged the movements that started Maori language week, a yearly celebration and revival of New Zealand’s official language, Te Reo Maori.